Diagnosis of bladder cancer comes in stages. Usually after presentation to your GP and a decision that further investigation is necessary, some formal urine tests and a CT scan are ordered. This is often the time that referral to a urologist is required. A decision is then made about whether a telescopic examination of the bladder is required (Cystoscopy).
If a bladder tumour is found at Cystoscopy, it is often removed telescopically and sent for analysis (histopathology). The pathologist’s assessment and expertise is key to the correct classification and subsequent treatment.
This determines 2 main features: the aggressiveness of the tumour and the depth of invasion into the bladder wall.